The Canon of the Bible


canon-of-the-bible

Give a definition of “canon.”

      Klein proposes a very standard definition of the word Canon; “meaning list, ruler or standard of faith.”[1]

Where does the word come from and what does it mean with relationship to the study of the Bible?

      The word Canon comes from the Greek word Kanon and it refers to the collection of biblical books that Christians accept as uniquely authoritative.

Discuss the development of the New Testament and the criteria of canonicity used by the early church.

        The canon of the New Testament seems to be complicated. It seems to be even more complicated when we considered the many books that claimed canonicity. However, when looking deeply at the matter, it was not as complicated as it seems. As I have written consistently through these forums, I prefer to go back to the divine. I prefer to go back to the Holy Spirit and look at the men who were divinely inspired to write the scriptures. That is why the focus of the canon should be place on the original apostles, not in the church’s fathers and not in the arrogance of the Catholic or any other church or individual. To be able to identify the canon of the New Testament, we must look first at who did the writing. Ephesians 2:20 tell us, “having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone,” (NKJV).

       Some argue that the Canon was not put together until about 400 years after Christ; against this loud argument Kruger adds, “Childs (as well as others inside and outside canonical criticism) has offered and alternative… Canon exists not when there is a final, close list, but when books function as authoritative Scripture for the community – and this happen well before the fourth century.”[2] Scripture itself support this alternative.

       Did the apostles know they were writing the heart of God? Kruger speaks of Apostolic Self-Awareness.[3] Scriptures such as, 2 Peter 3:15-16 leaves no doubt that the apostles indeed knew they were writing Scripture, “and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, 16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.” (NKJV)

     Notice that Peter was aware that Paul was writing Scripture. Also notice the uniformity of Scripture, “…in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things…” Furthermore, First Thessalonians 2:13 tells us, “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.” (NKJV)

      Klein also seems to agree with Kruger as he made a “Crucial Distinction: The process of canonization did not grant biblical books their authority. Rather, books that were recognized as authoritative were admitted to the canon.”[4] Klein gives the following criteria for the New Testament Canonicity: 1) Apostolic connection, 2) Orthodoxy in the theology and ethics of the New Testament and 3) books passed the test of times in their effectiveness in helping a large number of churches since the early generations of Christianity.”[5]

      Kruger echoes the same criteria for the canonicity of Scripture; in his case he writes, “1) Divine qualities… 2) Corporate reception and 3) Apostolic Origins.[6] Furthermore, Bruce also offers very similar explanations for the criteria for the canonicity of Scripture, 1) Apostolic Authority, 2) Antiquity: (Needed to be written during the apostolic age), 3) Orthodoxy (Again referring exclusively to the apostolic faith), 4) Catholicity (It needed to be recognized universally, even the Catholic Church agreed on the 66 books recognized by the rest of the orthodox Christendom.) 5) Traditionally use, 6) Inspiration (Books were indeed included in the canon because they were recognized as inspired.)[7]

Why did early Christians feel a need to establish an authoritative list of Scripture?

      Klein gives the basic reasons that I have also found in other books, 1) an increasing amount of heretics such as Marcion, 2) the rise of Gnostic writings and 3) the increase persecution against Christians; particularly, Christians wanted to know exactly what books to die for.[8]

What element in the criteria of canonicity is most important in your opinion? And Why?

      I find all of them very important; it is impossible for me to chose one, but I can settle for two, 1) apostolic origins and 2) apostolic theological orthodoxy. As I have been stating, I find peace in staying close to the men whom God supernaturally gave the Word to.

Which element is least important in your opinion? And Why?

       I can’t take away the importance of each one of these elements I have discussed through this forum.

How would you respond to a person who claimed that the canon of the Bible should still be open?

       I really don’t know; I feel that those 66 books I have been reading for over 20 years are divinely inspired. I have no doubts! Nevertheless, I am doing some studies on the book of Enoch. I actually took the time to read this fascinating book and it reads like the Bible. I have found that many brothers and sisters in the Body of Christ, in fact consider this book Scripture. I am not sure I am ready to agree with that, but who does not want to read a book written by a man who walked with God? This may be a good a good question for our professor; maybe he has more insight on this matter.

Bibliography

Bruce, F. F. The Canon of Scripture. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 1988.

Klein, W.W., C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition. Zondervan, 2017.

Kruger, Michael J. Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the           New Testament Books, Wheaton: Crossway, 2012.

 

 

 

 

[1] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition (Zondervan, 2017), 165

[2] Michael J. Kruger, Canon Revisited: Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books, (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012) 57

[3] Ibid. 184

 

[4] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 180

[5] Ibid. 179-180

[6] Michael J. Kruger, Canon Revisited: Canon Revisited, 97 – 113

[7] F. F. Bruce, The Canon of the Scripture, (Grove: IVP Academic), 256 – 263

[8] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 174

 

Five Qualifications to Interpret Scripture


hermeneutic

Introduction

         We know that God does not make mistakes; we know that his Word is without error. We know that even as the prophets and apostles God chose to write His Word, were not perfect themselves, every word they wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit was. So neither God nor the original writers are the problem. The problem was, the problem is and, the problem will continue to be found in, the interpreter; that is… us!

         It is of fundamental importance that we develop a relationship with God, that we learn to hear from Him[1], that we study the Scriptures, that we grow in our knowledge of good theology and sound doctrine and, that we get a hold of hermeneutics as a tool to properly interpret Scripture. This post is designed to help us do just that.

Offer a list and description of the qualifications needed for an interpreter to offer a proper reading of Scripture.

     Klein offers five qualifications for the interpreter of Scripture. Klein adds that the following set of qualifications “put the interpreter in the best position to obtain valid interpretation of the biblical text.”[2] Those are,

  1. A reasoned faith in the God who reveals.
  2. Willingness to obey the message.
  3. Illumination of the Holy Spirit.
  4. Membership in the church.
  5. Willingness to employ appropriate methods.

Give the importance of each qualification for understanding Scripture.

A Reasoned Faith in the God who reveals

     Klein states, “all understanding requires a framework or context within which to interpret.”[3] As it refers to us as believers it is essential, as Klein also points out, “that we have a relationship with God in order to fully understand the book God has authored.”[4] Klein also includes faith as “foundational for a full comprehension of Scripture. It is not the only qualification, nor does it guaranty correct interpretation.”[5]

         As I read this portion of our reading assignment I am reminded of First Peter 3:15, “ but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence;” (New American Standard Bible)

         No doubts that we should be ready, able and willing to give a reasonable account for why we believe what we believe. However, I believe we must also keep in mind that ultimately, the gospel is foolishness to the world (First Corinthians 1:18). I am not saying that we can’t apply reason to our faith, but without scientific evidence how can we be considered reasonable to the world when giving the story of Eve speaking to a serpent, or Jesus born out of a virgin or demons, miracles, etc.?

Willingness to Obey the Message

         This is the “willingness to put oneself “under” the text, to submit one’s will to hear and respond to the text in a faithful manner. The truly faithful reader seeks to obey what God reveals in Scripture.”[6] This is true humility before God, refusing to be wise in our own opinons (Proverbs 3:7), dying to self (1 Corinthians 15:31), personal agendas, ideas culture, etc. and a willingness to submit ourselves to the truth of the Bible.

Illumination of the Holy Spirit

     Klein connects this third qualification with the first two already mentioned; “…is to allow the Holy Spirit to complement the process of exegesis. For this part, God provides the resources for an obedient understanding of his truth: the regeneration of the Holy Spirit.”[7] The Holy Spirit gets the job done; if the goal is to show the true principle and application of the text, that is Holy Ghost territory.

Membership in the Church

   We are indeed a family… a big family. There is nothing in Scripture that promotes or support individualism; no Rambo Christians. The church should be the primary place where the family of God is able to learn about God and these tools of Bible interpretation. If anything, it should be the place where we can humbly listen to what other believers have to say and as Klein adds, “Likewise, our conclusions, if they are correct, have importance for the other.”[8]

Willingness to Employ Appropriate Methods

     If we are Born Again believers, if we love God and if we love others, there will be willingness in our hearts to study and understand the Scripture. How can we love anybody and have no interest in listening to what he or she has to say? Impossible. However, I am at peace with the fact that, as Klein explains, there are different levels of proficiency from the uneducated Christian to the scholar,[9] I believe that God is able to reveal the necessary truth to each believer according to their call.

Which of these qualifications are most important?

     In my opinion, they are all important; if I have to place them in order of importance it will go something like this: 1) A Reasoned faith in the God who reveals, particularly because here Klein speaks about the vital importance of having a relationship with God. Everything starts there. 2) Illumination of the Holy Spirit. The ultimate goal of Scripture is to show us the way of God, his righteousness, the way he wants us to live this life, etc. Only the Holy Spirit is able to do that. 3) Willingness to obey the message. The flesh in us, we know is weak, but the spirit of a born again believer is willing (Matthew 26:41). That willingness to follow God is the fruit of the Spirit in the believers; it is Christianity becoming real in the life of a believer. 4) Willingness to employ appropriate methods. Jesus tells us in Matthew 5:6, “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.” (NASB) I believe that this kind of hunger and thirst for righteousness creates a willingness in a child of God to employ any method that will assist them in knowing God and his Word in a more intimate way. 5) Lastly, Membership in the church. Without implementing the first four qualifications when interpreting Scripture in our lives, I don’t think the church experience will be as rich and, worst of all, we may be unaware or desensitize to heresy, bad theology and false doctrines.

Which do you think are not as necessary?

     They are all necessary, in my opinion.

Give reasons for your choices.

     I chose “A reasoned faith in the God who reveals” with emphasis on cultivating a relationship with God. Jesus die, not only to save our souls, but to give us the precious gift of being able to have a direct relationship with the Father. We don’t need a priest to go to God in our behalf; we can go to God ourselves. That does not mean that we throw out the teachers, the need for pastors, the need to study and utilize these diverse tools such as hermeneutics, but we are aware of first things first, we are called to love God above all things.

What role does the Holy Spirit play in interpretation?

     I feel very uncomfortable with limiting the Holy Spirit in anything. As far as I know, the only thing God cannot do is lie. The role of the Holy Spirit is central and is vital in interpreting Scripture. The cultural, social, economical and languages spoken at the time the Scripture was written are of secondary importance.

     The Holy Spirit is the one who reveals the meaning and he reveals that meaning to whomever he wants; to children (Matthew 21-15-16), to uneducated men such as the original apostles, the humble man in the church that does not speak much and the old lady who prays a lot. We can’t forget that God choses the foolish and the weak to shame the strong (I Corinthians 1:27).

How do we determine the impact of the Spirit on an individual’s interpretation?

     The whole law of the prophets was summarized in two commandments, to love God above all things and to love our neighbor (Matthew 22:36-40). I believe that Augustine answers this question perfectly as he states, “the first principle of Bible interpretation is that it leads readers to love God and to love others.”[10] Furthermore, Professor Roy B. Zuck offer fourteen powerful points concerning the Holy Spirit and interpretation of Scripture, for the sake of space I will only quote one,

The role of the Spirit in interpreting the Bible does not mean that one’s interpretations are infallible. Inerrancy and hence infallibility are characteristics of the Bible’s original manuscripts, but not of the Bible’s interpreters. The manuscripts were inerrant because of the Holy Spirit’s guarding and guiding the writers to record what He wanted recorded, word for word. But such a superintending work cannot be claimed for interpreters of the Word. In inspiration the Holy Spirit superintended the authors in order to override any human error. In interpretation the Holy Spirit guides but He does not guard against infallibility. To elevate one’s interpretations to the level of infallibility would blur the distinctions between inspiration (a past, now completed work of the Spirit in the recording of Scripture) and interpretation (a present, ongoing work of the Spirit in helping interpreters in the comprehending of Scripture). Also it would ascribe to Protestants a level of infallibility for human leaders which evangelicals reject in Roman Catholicism.[11]

Conclusion

         I have no doubt that a non believer will be able to look at the Scripture and apply certain aspects of hermeneutics, perhaps better than some of us. Some of them perhaps would be able to explain the culture of the time or even understand the language in better detail that some Christians that are not trained in those matters. Nevertheless, unless the Holy Ghost reveals to them the principle, they will not be able to see it nor accept it; they are blind to the things of God (2 Corinthians 4:4). Klein brings this point home when he states, “…full understanding comes only to the sincere follower of the God who revealed – the follower who diligently seeks to practice the message of the text studied.”[12]

         Klein is very cleaver in describing the arrogance of those that totally reject hermeneutics, exegesis or any other tool[13] and I agree with him. That arrogance also exists in the academic world. So the problem is not necessarily refusing to use those tools or using them diligently… the problem is pride! Not everybody is able to afford classes at Liberty University and not everybody is bless with a pastor that actually understands and takes the time to teach hermeneutics, but everybody has access to the Holy Ghost!

         Humility is indeed the key; when our opinions do not lineup with Scripture we must let it go; when we insist in doing things our way, then we are operating in pride and we know that “…God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble.” (James 4:6 NASB)

Bibliography

Klein, W.W., C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition. Zondervan, 2017.

Zuck, Roy B. The Role of the Holy Spirit in Hermeneutics, Biblioteca Sacra: 1984.

 

 

 

 

 

[1] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition (Zondervan, 2017), 202

 

[2] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 202

[3] Ibid. 202

[4] Ibid, 202

[5] Ibid. 203

[6] Ibid. 205

[7] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 206

 

[8] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 208

[9] Ibid. 210

[10] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 87

[11] Roy B. Zuck, The Role of the Holy Spirit in Hermeneutics, (Biblioteca Sacra: 1984) 122

[12] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 206

[13] Ibid. 206 – 208

Sticking to the Bible


Old Bible With Sword

Introduction

      The older I get the more peace I find in sticking to the Bible, to the orthodoxy of the Old and New Testament, the direct commands of Christ and to the divine call of the apostles to make sense of it all. We may struggle to find the truth, to navigate through the many OPINIONS of man, bad teachings, cultural differences, Bible verses taken out of context, the challenges of languages, diverse Bible versions and many other challenges; however, we were not left alone to depend on our own opinions. We were given the blessing of the Holy Spirit and Godly examples to follow. There is no need to reinvent the wheel or to guess; we must stay focus on the divine. That is, 1) the divine Word of God, 2) the greatest teacher of all, the Holy Ghost and, 3) I go as far as saying, the divine methodology for biblical interpretation given by the original apostles.

A time period and a person whose method offers the most promise for attaining a clear interpretation of Scripture today

      The apostles were not perfect men, but they were the only men in the history of the world, outside of the Old Testament prophets, to receive perfect doctrine. I go as far as saying that they gave us also, the proper method of interpretation. Klein refers to the original apostles as “the first Christian interpreters.”[1]

      The Apostles left us with a very simple and yet, powerful hermeneutical system. Klein identify several such as, 1) they regarded Jesus as Israel’s promised Messiah; they acknowledge Jesus as the fulfillment of Judaism’s hope. 2) They appeal to the Old Testament to support their beliefs. Is important to point out that Jesus validated the Old Testament by quoting it and referring to it as Scripture. They interpreted the OT from radically new perspective – in light of the Messiahship of Jesus. When interpreting the Old Testament Klein points out that they a) applied Literal interpretation: The fundamental hermeneutic principle was viewing Jesus as the ultimate fulfillment of OT prophecy. The focus here was the application of typology interpretation; the idea that the Old Testament pointed at Jesus and at events to come. b) Literal-contextual Interpretation: this is the application of the Old Testament as it is; and c) Principle/application Interpretation: This is the utilization of getting a hold of examples of principles in he OT that could be applicable in current situations. 3) They revered Jesus as superior than Moses and the law.[2]

      The closer we keep these principles in minds the closer we will be to walking in truth. The Jewish Interpretation’s greatest flaw is that they miss the Messiah. With the Patristic Period we see the beginning stages of the church disregarding the Holy Spirit and the orthodoxy of the Apostles for that of these apostolic fathers. However, Augustine approach and contribution to hermeneutics can’t be ignored.

      To guard against the subjective excesses of allegory, he offered three interpretative             principles for finding the figurative meaning of difficult texts. 1) One consults what            other, clearer passages of Scripture say on the subject. 2) One consults the “rule of faith” or the apostolic interpretation of the major doctrines of Scripture. 3) If conflicting views      meet both criteria, one should consult the context to see which best commends itself.[3]

      I look at Augustine method with great respect, as it is an attempt to go back to the apostles’ way. In that regard I also respect Luther and Calvin; their high view of Scripture was a refreshing return to what truly works when attempting to interpret Scripture.

How that method aids a modern interpreter in understanding Scripture?

            It is the only way; Christ centered and Holy Ghost dependent. That system was good then, is good now and will forever be good. At the annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society in 2003, McCartney states,

            Hence there is a sense in which we must emulate the exegetical practice of the        New Testament writers. If we do not adopt the viewpoint of Jesus and the apostles            that Christ’s death and resurrection is the key focus of the Old Testament, thatChrist is himself the centerpiece of all God’s promises, that Christ is the true Israel, true Son of God, that the meaning of the biblical texts for the present-day people of God has to do with our relation to God in Christ, then how can our interpretation be deemed in any sense Christian?[4]

Conclusion

            As long as we have humans involve, there will always be problems. Lets face it, we are carnal folks with souls in need of restoration; we will mess up. Bias, ambitions, personal agendas and the pride of man will always get on the way of truth. However, if we keep our eyes on Jesus and stop placing ourselves at the center, if we are “…diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace” we will be ok (Ephesians 4:3 NASB). If we embrace humility and find satisfaction in being the echo of the voices of the Old and New Testament writers and don’t try to speak over them… we will be ok!

Bibliography

Klein, W.W., C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition. Zondervan, 2017.

McCartney, Dan G. “Should We Employ the Hermeneutics of the New Testament Writers?”, (2003)

 

 

 

 

 

[1] [1] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition (Zondervan, 2017), 77

[2] Ibid. 77 – 79

[3] Ibid. 87

[4] Dan G. McCartney, “Should We Employ the Hermeneutics of the New Testament Writers?”, (2003)

My Issues with Hermeneutics


hermenuetics-730x430

Introduction

        It is not mi intention, through this post, to dismiss the importance of Hermeneutics. Klein states that we are “in an era of increasing biblical illiteracy…”[1] and I can’t agree with him more. Furthermore, the Bible tells us “Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth.” (2 Timothy 2:15 – NASB) I want to make it clear that I am not against any system that assists in giving us organized, structured and disciplined methods when studying and interpreting the Scripture. However, as I attempt to answer a few basic questions for this post, I will also, with great humility, present issues that deeply concerned me.

A Definition of Hermeneutics

           Hermeneutics describes the task of explaining the meaning of Scripture. The word              derives from the Greek verb hermeneuo “to explain or to translate,” while the                                    noun hermeneia means “interpretation” or “translations.”[2]

         Klein simplified the term hermeneutic by describing it as “The art and science of interpretation.”[3] Klein list several reasons to justify the need for hermeneutics. I do agree with Klein when he states, “the interpreter’s personal freedom has come with considerable risk of bias and distortion.”[4] However, bias and distortion has been around from the very beginning, when Satan tempted and deceived Eve in the Garden. Personal agendas have caused a lot of physical and theological murders through the pages of church history. Taking Bible verses out of context to conveniently fit a particular mindset continues to be a problem today and will continue to be so until the return of our Lord. It comes with the territory! In this regard I see the usefulness of Hermeneutics to be able to quickly disregard obvious atrocities when dealing with Bible interpretation. However, Klein gives other reasons to justify the need for hermeneutics that left me, either standing for the truth or, in need of a great deal of clarification.

         Klein stated, “The Bible is God’s Word, yet it has come to us through human means.”[5] This is a great talking point for an atheist or humanist who stand against the divine nature of Scripture. It implies imperfection in the way God delivered his Word to us. Klein added even more talking points to the atheist and humanist by stating, “The divine message must be clear, yet many passages seem all too ambiguous.”[6] Lastly, and this seems to be a theme through this initial reading, Klein stated that, “We acknowledge the crucial role of the Holy Spirit, yet scholarship is surely necessary to understand what the Spirit has inspired.”[7] It implies that even as the Holy Spirit plays a “crucial role”, He is not powerful enough to help us with the understanding of the Scripture that HE HIMSELF inspired. (2 Timothy 3:16 / 2 Peter 1:21) Later, Klein made his point crystal clear regarding this topic as he describes how the illumination of the Holy Spirit helps believers understand Scripture by giving us “the ability to apprehend, not comprehend, the meaning.”[8] What an amazing arrogant point of view! It is the Holy Ghost who guide us into the truth according to John 16:13, “But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes, He will guide you into all the truth; for He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come.” (NASB) Have we forgotten that God has given us the ability to know His voice and to follow him? (John 10:27) Professor Hanko stole the words out of my mouth when he states,

    From a certain point of view, the child of God needs no instruction in         Hermeneutics. If Hermeneutics is the science of biblical interpretation, it follows            from the very nature of Scripture itself that no formal instruction is necessary for a regenerated saint to be able to understand what God is saying in His Word.    Countless saints over the centuries have read the Word of God without ever           knowing the first thing about Hermeneutics, without even having heard the word. They have read Scripture, understood what God was saying to them with stark     clarity, and have taken that Word into their hearts.

      It is true that we teach Hermeneutics in Seminary as a required course for prospective ministers of the gospel. Students are obligated to learn the principles of biblical interpretation and to apply them to Scripture. But if they, with their  acquired learning, think that by these studies they have gained an edge on God’s  people, they are sadly mistaken.[9]

The importance of the following components as we search for effective ways to properly interpret Scripture

        If I focus on 1) the role of the writters of the text, I find myself handicap as, obviously, all of the writers of Scripture are long-gone. If I focus on, 2) the role of the original readers of the text, I run into two problems, a) they are also long-gone and b) I can be a victim of their own bias and personal agendas. Lastly, if I focus on, 3) the role of the interpreter then the focus is on me and that can’t be good either. I find it intellectually useful to study the cultures[10] of the day, to dig deep into the language differences[11] and so on, but at the end of the day what is the ultimate purpose of Scripture? Whose ultimate responsibility is to show us that purpose? And who will truly help us to live out that purpose?

What kind of impact does this particular participant provide on an attempt to discover the meaning of a text?

        For the sake of this post I will focus on the author of the text. At first, the Theological Interpretation of Scripture (TIS) gave me a great deal of hope. TIC is an attempt to look at Scripture in its context, the corporate and personal view of the Scripture by what was establish in the past and even what is established as truth in the present.[12] However, as Klein points out, “The danger is that TIS puts the authority of a text of the Bible not in the divine text itself but in how the church father’s, or creed, or some church community understands the meaning of the text.”[13] Therefor I see, in this initial reading of Klein, a lot of Catholic influences; the need for a “priest” to tells us what the Scripture means.

        The Bible is very clear about our need to deny ourselves. That is dying to our ideas, to our culture, to the way we are raise, to what is popular and even to what we like and everything that is against the culture of the Bible. The more we put ourselves in Scripture the more bad theology and bad interpretations will occur. The idea is for us to die to self, to come to the Lord naked, without any ideas or agendas and to allow the Holy Spirit to guide us into all truth.

How important is this component?

        To know about the author has an intellectual value; who is he, his time, the culture that surrounded him, the political atmosphere, some interesting contemporaries, etc. I suppose, in a minuscular way, knowing these things, could help us understand the Scripture a little better. However, I can’t place my hope in hermeneutics as a way to properly interpret Scripture. If that is so, then any unbeliever with the ability to read will be able to use hermeneutical tools in order to be able to understand Scripture and, we know, that is biblically inaccurate. The lost cannot see the reality of the Gospel (2 Corinthians 4:4). It is the power of the Holy Ghost that is able to navigate through all the geographical distance, cultural distance, language distance, bias and selfish agendas through the ages, etc. etc. etc.

Conclusion

      Lastly and in conclusion, I refuse to subscribe to the central idea of what the following quote is trying to communicate regarding the Bible; that it “was originally written to somebody else…”[14] Klein expanded by stating that, “Though the Bible originates through human agents in the normal circumstances of life, it is fundamentally God’s word to his people, it has an “eternal relevance.” The Bible DOES NOT ORIGINATE through human agents. John tells us, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” (John 1:1 NASB). 2 Peter 1:20-21 explained this truth even further as he states, “But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.” (NASB)

         Human agents were not the authors of Scripture, God is. Human agents simply wrote what the Spirit of God uttered. When it comes down to interpretations, human agents can definitely assist, God has indeed given us teachers (Ephesians 4:11), but it is only God who is able to transform, to give us revelation of Scripture and cause us to grow (1 Corinthians 3:7). Through God and only through HIM we are able to grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord. (2 Peter 3:18)

Bibliography

Klein, W.W., C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition. Zondervan, 2017.

Richards, Randolph E., O’Brien, Brandon J. Misreading Scripture With Western Eyes.       Inter Varsity Press, 2012.

Hanko, Herman C. Issues in Hermeneutics. Protestant Reformed Theological Journals: 1990.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Submit your threads by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday and your replies by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday.

 

[1] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: 3rd Edition (Zondervan, 2017), 33

[2] Ibid. 39, 40

       [3] Ibid. 42

[4] Ibid. 39

[5] Ibid. 39

[6] Ibid. 39

[7] Ibid. 39

[8] Ibid. 41

[9] Herman C. Hanko, Issues in Hermeneutics, (Protestant Reformed Theological Journals: 1990), 2.

[10] E. Randolph Richards, Brandon J. O’Brien, Misreading Scripture With Western Eyes. (Downer’s Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press, 2012), 15.

[11] Ibid. 70 – 72

[12] W.W. Klein, C.L. Blomberg, and R.L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. 50

[13] Ibid. 50, 51

God is not the Problem


GoodnessOfGod

How can a God who is both all-powerful and all-good allow evil to continue without eradicating it? The problem with evil is presented as a problem with God and therefor, a problem with our faith as Christians. The voices of the atheist community are the main leaders in this demonic agenda against the essence of God’s character, his goodness. But the issue is not a complicated one at all. God made us free!

         I am convinced that the same people complaining against the result of our freedom (evil) would be the same people complaining if God decides to make robots out of us. The Garden of Eden represents the perfect will of God for us. However, Adam and Eve introduced evil in this world by disobeying God. There is no other explanation! I am glad that in spite of Adam and Eve disobedience and, in spite of our current condition, God is not giving up on us.

         God is not the problem, we are!  In fact, God gave us the redemptive plan through Jesus Christ. In Christ God manifest his love and goodness towards us. This explanation, however, will never be sufficient to the lost; they need the miracle of salvation (Ephesians 2:8-9). To think that salvation will come through intellectual arguments is not biblical. Apologetics is not about professional debates; is about the simplicity of somebody asking us why we believe what we believe and us having enough understanding of our faith to give a solid, loving and humble answer. (First Peter 3:15)

But in your hearts revere Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, 16 keeping a clear conscience, so that those who speak maliciously against your good behavior in Christ may be ashamed of their slander. First Peter 3:15-16 (NIV)

 

Just Because the Bible Tells Me So


ForgivenessintheBible-GettyImages-121917347-5669c6305f9b583dc316ce15

The minimization of the authority of God’s Word has been at the center of Satan’s strategy against God’s plan from the very beginning (Genesis 3:1-7). That same attack extends its wings into our time in different forms. Erickson states that there is evidence that when theologians, schools, or movements disregard the inerrancy of the Bible, it always causes the abandonment of cornerstone beliefs in our faith (Erickson 2013, 195-196). Therefore, the inerrancy of Scripture is not a small matter, but a foundational one.

         Feinberg’s defines inerrancy as “the view that when all the facts become known, they will demonstrate that the Bible in its original autographs and correctly interpreted is entirely true and never false in all it affirms, whether that relate to doctrine or ethics or to the social, physical, or life sciences” (Elwell 2001, 156). Arguments with the world concerning the inerrancy of the Bible should be discouraged; for the lost are blinded by the god of this world (First Corinthians 4:4). We have a bigger problem; these attacks are coming from within the walls of some of our own churches. Erickson states, “As part of postmodernism, there has been an objection to the idea of foundationalism, which is the view that all beliefs are justified by their relationship to certain basic beliefs” (Erickson 2013, 206). Erickson equates those beliefs to doctrines. Furthermore, he establishes that those doctrines must “…rest upon the authority of Scripture” (Erickson 2013, 206).

         Erickson defines and explains various conceptions of inerrancy (Erickson 2013, 191-193). I passionately embrace Full Inerrancy and loudly reject all other conceptions for the simple reason that it fully honors God’s Word. Furthermore, Full Inerrancy explains controversial scientific and historical issues. The Bible was not written and applicable only for those of the generation of the original writers, as Limited Inerrancy seems to suggest. Certain concepts had to be explained in ways the writer could understand, which is why some will argue as to its application for the modern age. In the book of Revelation, for example, there may be references to airplanes, but airplanes were not invented until nearly two thousand years later; so other ways of explanation needed to be used. This is not difficult to understand for those who know the voice of their Shepherd (John 10:27), but there will always be room in the Bible for those who want to discredit it.

         I rest in the fact that in God’s Word, I confirm truth: the truth that I can count on, the truth that will make me free (John 8:32), the truth that will carry me on and carry me trough the tough times and teach me to face the good times with humility. This is the truth of God’s Word and the truth that I should live for. Even if I find myself walking though the valley of the shadow of death (Psalm 23:4), I can stand without fear just because, the Bible tells me so.

Elwell, Walker A. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker     Academic, 2001.

Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013.

The Doctrine of Mercy and the Great Promise


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We are not and will never justify sin and sinful lifestyles, but we cannot take anything away from the power of the blood of Christ. If we are honest with ourselves, we are all struggling with something… I know I am! It may be sexually related, it may be anger, it may be pride, greed, etc. but nobody is exempt from the desires of the flesh! That reality should humble each and every one of us.

         The reality is that we all stand in need of mercy; we can’t make it without mercy. I guess that’s why His mercies are knew every morning; we need them every day. Lamentations 3:22-23 tells us, “Because of the Lord’s great love we are not consumed, for his compassions never fail. 23 They are new every morning; great is your faithfulness.” (NIV) Mercy flows out of God’s love for us. Because of His love we are not destroy.

         The flesh is disgusting! The desires of the flesh are disgusting and everything about the flesh is disgusting. That is, whether you are a born again believer or an atheist. The flesh’s desires are contrary to everything that God stands for (Galatians 5:17).

         Jesus gave us a powerful principle when he stated, “Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” Matthew 26:41 (NIV) There is a part of us, (the flesh), that wants nothing to do with God. There is another part of us, (the spirit), that is willing to cooperate with God; it is our inner most, it is the part of us with the ability to carry on our greatest responsibility as believers, to worship God according to John 4:23. And yet, there is a part of us that stand in need of restoration; it is where the work is taking place, in our souls; that is, the seat of our emotions, our mind sand our will. That is the complexity of us humans.

         In this world we have two kinds of people, the guilty and the not guilty. The guilty because without Christ we are all guilty; that is because we have all sin and fall short of God’s glory according to Romans 3:23. The non-guilty is tricky; because our innocence as believers is not based on our good works, but based strictly on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. It is what we are… THROUGH HIM.

         I am so glad that Jesus took away the guilt for our sins of the past, our sins of today and even our future sins. I am so glad that through Him we are righteous, holy and a finish work. But also, I am glad that through the Holy Ghost, He is changing us. But in that process of changing us, because it is a process, He is dealing with us through discipline, for God discipline those He love according to Hebrews 12:6 and, through mercy.

          We can’t fail my brothers and sisters! Today, we are a part of that great promise He made to the Children of Israel, as we are also, New Testament folks. That greater promise is that He is going to take the WORD, His precious Law, and place it in our hearts. He will finish the work no only through HIM, not only in a positional way, but also in US. That actual finish work, I believe, will take place in the New Jerusalem. So I end with these words from Jeremiah 31:33,

But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (NKJV)

 

The Causes for the Evil in the World


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“Taste and see that the Lord is good;

blessed is the one who takes refuge in him.”

Psalm 34:8 (NIV)

The nature of the character of God has been in question since the beginning of the church. The argument through the ages is that God is not a good God. The pulpits of the primitive church were infected by a false doctrine that is still being felt very strongly today. It was the main doctrine that the original apostles fought against, Gnosticism.

         A basic definition of Gnosticism is “the thought and practice, especially of various cults of late pre-Christian and early Christian centuries, distinguished by the conviction that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through gnosis.”[1]

         In other words, the physical world and his Creator (God the Father) are essentially evil. This is a direct attack against the character of God. There are many verses, all through the Bible, that speaks and affirms the goodness of God, but this new doctrine came to teach the world the total opposite of whom God is.

         The second part of this basic definition of Gnosticism is equally blasphemous; it indicates that salvation comes from gnosis (Knowledge) a total slap in the face to the Gospel, the cross and the sacrifice of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

         Some atheist today go as far as saying that even if they find prove of God’s existence, they will not worship him because they can’t understand why, if God is so good and powerful, he allows or, do nothing against rape, murder, the killing of children, etc. If you spend any time listening to atheist you will realize, very quickly, that the issue is not that they don’t believe in God’s existence. Romans 1:18-19 establishes that God has made his existence obvious to all men. The issue is that they are upset with HIM.

         Nevertheless, the question should be answered regarding the cause of evil. I do not intent to give you fancy philosophical statements or ideas. I am glad that in an issue of such importance, the Bible is not silence, but very clear in its explanations.

         If your heart is set in hating God, this article will not do a thing for you. Ultimately, the article is not for you, perhaps you are a suppressor of God’s truth. In that case, the wrath of God awaits you. (Romans 1:18)

         There are five reasons for evil; they are all intertwined with one another; you can’t separate them.

  1. Evil itself:

     That is, the devil and his demons or unclean spirits. There are demons spread around the world with specific agendas.

  1. The Secular System is full of demons (Revelations 18:2)
  2. There are demons assigned to spread false doctrine and confusion. (1 Timothy 4:1-5)
  3. Tormented spirits –Legion– (Mark 5:1-11)
  4. There are demons that are able to perform supernatural signs; they will be crucial in the devil’s battle against God. (Revelation 16:12-14)
  5. There are demons that filled our spirits with anger/rage (Ecclesiastes 7:9) We can say that every single fruit of the flesh has its root in our spirit. (Galatians 5:19-21) There are demons that take away the capacity of humans to talk; therefor they can’t make any confession for their own freedom. (Matthew 9:32-33)

 

  1. Men walking according to the flesh:

That is, men walking according to the desires of the flesh giving forth the fruit of the flesh. (Galatians 5:19-21) A constant falling under temptations (James 1:13-15) or, no longer falling under temptation, but a sinful way of life; that is, living according to the flesh.

  1. Iniquity and generational curses:

This is, the result of transgressions (Willingly sinning). (Number 14:18) This is also the manifestation of generational curses. (Exodus 20:5)

  1. The love for money:

The Bible is clear in telling us that at the root of “all evil” is the love for money. (1 Timothy 6:10) Think about any evil around the world and make no mistake about it, somebody is making money out of it.

  1. Men not getting what he wants:

     The result of men not getting what he wants gives birth to anger and that anger gives birth to violence. The Scripture tells us “Where do wars and fights come from among you? Do they not come from your desires for pleasure that war in your members?” James 4:1 (NKJV)

     The violent acts happening in this world is the direct result of somebody not getting what they want. From the fights in basketball courts to domestic violence and to murder, make no mistake about, somebody is mad because things are not going his/her way.

     Violence is the result of Godlessness. A soul without God can’t ever be satisfied, therefor, anger is at the heart of an ungodly person. The earth is again, filled with violence!

     God has giving us a free will, we have the freedom to do good or to do evil. Those who critic God for allowing evil to take place; imagine what they would say if God takes their freedom to chose to do whatever they want? God has not hide from us the consequences of our actions, the blessings and the curses; but has made it very clear; he wants us to choose life.

“This day I call the heavens and the earth as witnesses against you that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Now choose life, so that you and your children may live.” Deuteronomy 30:19 (NIV)

 

 

[1] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gnosticism

 

La Sana Doctrina 2


SANA DOCTRINA

      La doctrina; eso es, lo que se enseñaba, eso es, la Palabra de Vida de nuestro Señor Jesucristo, que se manifestó a través de Moisés, los profetas y, a través de las melodías y preciosas letras de los Salmos, está al centro de lo que la Iglesia original aprendió y, a su vez, de lo que nosotros estamos llamados a aprender hoy y siempre.

         La doctrina, eso es la Palabra que se hizo carne a través de nuestro Señor Jesucristo, quien canonizó el Viejo Testamento y quien nos dio sus propias y directas palabras, no se escribieron para ser ignoradas; son el dibujo de lo que nuestras vidas están supuestas a reflejar.

         Ese mensaje… ese mensaje poderoso que el mundo rechazó y continúa rechazando; ese mensaje que el mundo tuerce, que el mundo mezcla con mentira y confusión, aún en púlpitos y salas de casa de Cristianos; ese es el mensaje que se respalda con poder de Dios para salvar almas, para romper maldiciones, arrancar iniquidad, perdonar rebeliones y pecados, redimir, transformar, sanar enfermos y liberar a los cautivos. A Tito, Pablo le ordena específicamente, “Pero tú habla lo que está de acuerdo con la sana doctrina.” Tito 2:1 (RVR 1960)

         Fíjese hermano ministro, que no estamos llamados a inventarnos nada; a enseñar nuestras opiniones u opiniones de hombres; el mandamientos es claro “habla lo que está de acuerdo a la sana doctrina.”

             Entonces la pregunta debe ser ¿Qué es la sana doctrina? Lo que amo de la Palabra de Dios es que, aunque no lo entendemos todo, hay ciertos temas que Dios ha hecho muy claros, la Sana doctrina es uno de esos temas.

         No tenemos que inventar nada o asumir que es esto o aquello. La Sana Doctrina se encuentra bien definida a través de toda la Escritura. Mas Tito capítulos 2 y 3, como otras porciones de la Biblia, contesta esta pregunta en detalles. La sana de doctrina es un patrón de conducta que va más allá de nuestras opiniones y culturas. No es una religiosidad externa, sino que fluye del corazón del hombre cristiano en su amor por la santidad de Dios. Hermanos, la sana doctrina no es una hopicrecia, ni intentos de ganarnos la salvación y el amor de Dios mediante obras, más una respuesta natural de hijos que desean demostrar su amor por Dios mediante la obediencia a lo que El establece como verdad y mandamiento.

Titos 2:2-15

Que los ancianos sean sobrios, serios, prudentes, sanos en la fe, en el amor, en la paciencia.

Las ancianas asimismo sean reverentes en su porte; no calumniadoras, no esclavas del vino, maestras del bien;

que enseñen a las mujeres jóvenes a amar a sus maridos y a sus hijos,

a ser prudentes, castas, cuidadosas de su casa, buenas, sujetas a sus maridos, para que la palabra de Dios no sea blasfemada.

Exhorta asimismo a los jóvenes a que sean prudentes;

presentándote tú en todo como ejemplo de buenas obras; en la enseñanza mostrando integridad, seriedad,

palabra sana e irreprochable, de modo que el adversario se avergüence, y no tenga nada malo que decir de vosotros.

Exhorta a los siervos a que se sujeten a sus amos, que agraden en todo, que no sean respondones;

10 no defraudando, sino mostrándose fieles en todo, para que en todo adornen la doctrina de Dios nuestro Salvador.

11 Porque la gracia de Dios se ha manifestado para salvación a todos los hombres,

12 enseñándonos que, renunciando a la impiedad y a los deseos mundanos, vivamos en este siglo sobria, justa y piadosamente,

13 aguardando la esperanza bienaventurada y la manifestación gloriosa de nuestro gran Dios y Salvador Jesucristo,

14 quien se dio a sí mismo por nosotros para redimirnos de toda iniquidad y purificar para sí un pueblo propio, celoso de buenas obras.

15 Esto habla, y exhorta y reprende con toda autoridad. Nadie te menosprecie.

Titos 3

Recuérdales que se sujeten a los gobernantes y autoridades, que obedezcan, que estén dispuestos a toda buena obra.

Que a nadie difamen, que no sean pendencieros, sino amables, mostrando toda mansedumbre para con todos los hombres.

Porque nosotros también éramos en otro tiempo insensatos, rebeldes, extraviados, esclavos de concupiscencias y deleites diversos, viviendo en malicia y envidia, aborrecibles, y aborreciéndonos unos a otros.

Pero cuando se manifestó la bondad de Dios nuestro Salvador, y su amor para con los hombres,

nos salvó, no por obras de justicia que nosotros hubiéramos hecho, sino por su misericordia, por el lavamiento de la regeneración y por la renovación en el Espíritu Santo,

el cual derramó en nosotros abundantemente por Jesucristo nuestro Salvador,

para que justificados por su gracia, viniésemos a ser herederos conforme a la esperanza de la vida eterna.

Palabra fiel es esta, y en estas cosas quiero que insistas con firmeza, para que los que creen en Dios procuren ocuparse en buenas obras. Estas cosas son buenas y útiles a los hombres.

Pero evita las cuestiones necias, y genealogías, y contenciones, y discusiones acerca de la ley; porque son vanas y sin provecho.

10 Al hombre que cause divisiones, después de una y otra amonestación deséchalo,

11 sabiendo que el tal se ha pervertido, y peca y está condenado por su propio juicio.

         Fíjense hermanos que dejé que la Biblia misma les hablara a través de Tito Capítulo 2 y 3. El mensaje es claro y, si te tomas el tiempo para leer estas cartas apostólicas te darás cuenta que los apóstoles se enfocaron en enseñarles al pueblo a amar a Dios y amar al prójimo; ese el corazón de la ley.

         Tito 2:8 me da la conclusión sobre todo este asunto que he venido tratando en este artículo cuando Pablo nos afirma que, “Estas cosas son buenas y útiles a los hombres.” (RVR 1960) Somos ministros de un Dios bueno, cuyo mensaje es bueno y útil para transfórmanos y para transformar a otros… en el Nombre de Jesús.

         Que Dios te bendiga… tu hermano y amigo, Siervo Angel Casiano.

angelcasiano@aol.com

La Sana Doctrina


SANA DOCTRINA

Para aquellos que continúan minimizando la autoridad de la Palabra de Dios y le dan sinónimo demoniaco a los que aman la sana doctrina, hoy tengo Palabra para ti.

Si alguno enseña otra cosa, y no se conforma a las sanas palabras de nuestro Señor Jesucristo, y a la doctrina que es conforme a la piedad, está envanecido, nada sabe, y delira acerca de cuestiones y contiendas de palabras, de las cuales nacen envidias, pleitos, blasfemias, malas sospechas, disputas necias de hombres corruptos de entendimiento y privados de la verdad, que toman la piedad como fuente de ganancia; apártate de los tales. Primera de Timoteo 6:3-5 (RVR 1960)

         Mas aún con la evidencia de estos versos, existe un grupo de ministros que nos continúa describiendo como legalistas por nuestro compromiso de honrar la Palabra de Dios. Hermanos, la sana doctrina existe; no es un invento de hombre. Es importante hacer el punto de que el ateo no es el problema, éstos han hecho clara su posición. El problema son los que están dentro de nuestras congregaciones, activamente enseñando cosas que no son bíblicas como si fueran verdades de Dios. Primera de Timoteo 4:1 nos dice, claramente,

Pero el Espíritu dice claramente que en los postreros tiempos algunos apostatarán de la fe, escuchando a espíritus engañadores y a doctrinas de demonios; (RVR 1960)

                 He escuchado decir que en los tiempos de la gloriosa iglesia original, solo el cinco por ciento de los miembros de la Iglesia  sabía leer. Entonces añaden que, dicha Iglesia dependía básica y exclusivamente del Espíritu Santo. Establecen argumentos en contra de la validez de la Palabra.

         Déjame establecer que no tengo ningún tipo de problema con que tengamos dependencia en el Espíritu Santo; por favor no distorsionen mi argumento en contra del suyo. Precisamente la realidad de la dependencia que debemos todos tener en el Espíritu Santo es lo que hace de estos argumentos efectivos y la razón por la cual pueden engañar a tantos en la Iglesia. Eso se deben a que los mensajes de doctrinas torcidas, siempre cargan verdad. Mas esa verdad esta mezclada con mentira. Hermanos, Satanás sabe que èl no se puede presentar ante el pueblo de Dios como Satanás, sino como Ángel de Luz. En Segunda de Corintios 11:13-15 el Apóstol Pablo nos dice,

Porque éstos son falsos apóstoles, obreros fraudulentos, que se disfrazan como apóstoles de Cristo. 14 Y no es maravilla, porque el mismo Satanás se disfraza como ángel de luz. 15 Así que, no es extraño si también sus ministros se disfrazan como ministros de justicia; cuyo fin será conforme a sus obras. (RVR 1960)

         Añaden y hacen argumentos apasionados para justificar que todo lo que la Iglesia necesitó para ser tan gloriosa, fue una sumisión total al Espíritu Santo sin necesidad de la Palabra, ya que, después de todo, el 95 por ciento de los hermanos y hermanos de ese tiempo era analfabeta… según ellos. Dicho argumento es débil y una falta de respeto a la Palabra de Dios.

         Nada le quitó al Espíritu Santo; sin Él no somos salvos y no tendríamos nunca revelación; pero tampoco le quitó autoridad a la Palabra de Dios. No podemos divorciar al Espíritu Santo de la palabra inspirada por El mismo.

         Si tomamos como verdad que el 95 de los miembros de la Iglesia no sabía leer, Pablo mismo mata el argumentó que intenta justificar este nuevo evangelio liberal. Segunda de Tesalonicenses 2:15 nos dice:

“Así  que, hermanos, estas firmes, y retened la doctrina que habéis aprendido, sea por Palabra, o por carta nuestra.” (RVR 1969)

         No importa si la persona sabía leer o no, lo cierto es que el mensaje fluía y penetraba para transformar el espíritu y el alma del hombre.

 

Continúa para la conclusión de este mensaje… La Sana Doctrina 2